Shaktiramar Spousal dynamics in the Late Ramesside Letters relationship status is acknowledged in other contemporary documentation, such as the Turin Taxation Papyrus in which the two are recorded lettegs working side-by-side receiving grain Gardiner37, l. The letter in question here, P. Recueil de titres et protocoles royaux, noms propres de rois, reines, princes, princesses et parents de rois. Whilst the literary levels of women during this period are a complex issue, On. British Museum Research Publications In personal letters the exact relationship status is usually inherently known by the sender and recipient, and therefore, does not require reiteration in letters.
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Kim Ridealgh Yes dear! Known as the WHm-ms. The majority of letters were sent between the well-known Scribes of the Necropolis EHw.
This paper examines two letters from the corpus of the Late Ramesside Letters, which were sent between two different spousal units. The dynamics of a husband and wife relationship will be investigated by looking at the contents, style, and language of these two letters.
It is not the intent of this paper to discuss the formalities of Egyptian marriage for this see Robins , 56—74; Toivari-Viitala ; , 15—90 , but rather to investigate the interactive relationship that existed between the spousal couple. In personal letters the exact relationship status is usually inherently known by the sender and recipient, and therefore, does not require reiteration in letters.
Very few spousal letters are known from Egypt, and outside of the Late Ramesside Letters, the majority of those are in demotic, which follow a pattern similar to the letters from the late New Kingdom Depauw , 95—97, — Relationship one: Ns-jmn-jp. Although the letter in question never directly refers to Ns-jmn-jp. Spousal dynamics in the Late Ramesside Letters relationship status is acknowledged in other contemporary documentation, such as the Turin Taxation Papyrus in which the two are recorded as working side-by-side receiving grain Gardiner , 37, l.
In this letter On. Deborah Sweeney notes that she attributes this to the intervention of the god Amun-United-With-Eternity, whom, On. In the letter On. This was not an uncommon practice for wives of scribes, and brings to the forefront the possible level of female literacy. However, it is not known whether her role was simply supervisory or if she did indeed write the letter herself, and then record the quantity of grain personally.
This perhaps suggests that she was indeed literate. For example, consider P. Whilst the literary levels of women during this period are a complex issue, On. Stylistically, the letter differs from the majority of the Late Ramesside Letters. The Egyptians adhered to a very stringent social etiquette code, and this is apparent in the corpus of letters.
A good example of a long introduction can clearly be seen in P. In the case of the letter in question here, written by On. The language that On.
As for you having said this matter of [ Phillipps, v. Sweeney , 53 associates both these phrases with language used in letters by superiors to their subordinates, as well as the heightened use of imperatives, which also appear in this letter, demonstrated in the following three examples: v. See, v. The language used in On. Had On. Not only is she active with the daily responsibilities of her husband, but On.
Geneva D , v. Relationship two: P -onX and NDm. This particular relationship has come under scrutiny due to the problems that arise when interpreting the end of the 20th dynasty and its relative chronology.
Two women were prominent at this period in the lives of these two men: the aforementioned NDm. The marital status of these two women, however, remains debated.
John Taylor , uses the chronological conclusions formed by Jansen-Winkeln, to offer a different interpretation on the marital status of P -onX and Orj-Hr, and he concludes that Yes dear! Taylor elaborates on NDm. After demonstrating the poor evidence that has in the past been used to determine a marriage between P -onX and Orr. Berlin , concerns the acknowledgment by P -onX of a previous letter sent by NDm. The letter demonstrates the level of trust between P -onX and NDm.
And you shall have these two Medjay brought v. And you v. Something not acknowledged by Taylor is that NDm. Whilst Orr. The deputisation of NDm. P -onX, normally very blunt and to the point in his letters to his subordinates, as demonstrated in P. The letter then addresses the matter at hand. His inquiry into NDm. Conclusion In both of these letters the two women in question act as deputies for their absent spouses.
They are given the task of maintaining the household and continue the communal responsibilities of their husbands. The letters present the reader with a sense of equality, with On.
Whilst it may appear that these two women were able to wield a higher level of authority than most women, it must be stressed that certainly in On.
For NDm. It would appear that there are levels of social decorum within the letters that dictate the necessity of formality and formal introductions. The closer the relationship between the sender of the letter and the recipient, the less need for social convention or politeness.
It is simply not needed due to the closeness of the relationship shared between the two. The extent of this informal relationship as seen in spousal relationships disappears as the more socially distant the sender and recipient become.
For example letters sent from those who are socially superior are more direct and task orientated, whilst those sent by subordinates are formal and fawning Sweeney , Yet within spousal relationships, at least within these two letters, the boundaries of superior-subordinate disappear.
A greater sense of equality appears, both within the language and the style of the letters. When approaching the theme of spousal dynamics a very crucial issue arises concerning the language of the letters.
This problem might be overcome through an analysis of the handwriting used in order to trace the various hands of the letters, an aim of future research. Yes dear! Martina Minas-Nerpel and Dr. Troy Sagrillo for all their support with this paper. Bresciani, E. Helck, and W. Wolfhart eds. Wiesbaden, Otto Harrassowitz. Bibliotheca Aegyptiaca 9. British Museum Research Publications London, British Museum Press. Depauw, M. Demotische Studien Sommerhausen, Gisela Zauzich.
Erman, A. Volumes I—VII. Berlin, Akademie Verlag. Gardiner, A. Gauthier, H. Hornung, E. Hornung, R. Warburton eds. Ancient Egyptian Chronology. Leiden, Brill. Jansen-Winkeln, K. Janssen, J. Hieratic papyri in the British Museum 6. Hieratic Papyri in the British Museum 8. Kitchen, K. Warminster, Aris and Phillips Limited. Broekman, R. Kaper eds. The Libyan Period in Egypt. Egyptologische Uitgaven 23, — Lull, J. British Archaeological Reports International Series Oxford, Archaeopress.
Studies in Ancient Oriental Civilization (SAOC)
The area is known for its gold and platinum. I suggest Dhutmose was sent to oversee the gold mines in Yar Arjo, Ethiopia. It was an excellent defensive site for a city and its location made it a natural cargo transfer point for river trade. Elephantine was likely the home of Piankh and Herere.
Cerny. Late Ramesside Letters.
Chicago, University of Chicago Press. And you shall have these two Medjay brought v. For example letters sent from those ramessode are socially superior are more direct and task orientated, whilst those sent by subordinates are formal and fawning Sweeney The marital status of these two women, however, remains debated. The letters present the reader with a sense of equality, with On. The letter then addresses the matter at hand. Catalog Record: Late Ramesside letters and communications Hathi Trust Digital Library The Egyptians adhered to a very stringent social etiquette code, and this is apparent in the corpus of letters. This perhaps suggests that she was indeed literate.