He then moved to the house-hold and toiletries division where he was responsible for initiating and implementing a pan-European supply chain strategy based on the lean concept of "every product every interval". More recently Ian has been working with companies as an independent Lean coach and sensei. His approach to applying lean in many types of industries, including chemicals, paints, pharmaceuticals, grocery, food and drinks, is refreshingly different, instructive and always entertaining. Both books have won the prestigious Shingo publication Award. Articles by Ian Glenday June 25, Ian Glenday "A fixed repeating pattern in production that involves more frequent short runs seems ridiculous and impossible to achieve," writes Ian Glenday.
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Alongside these religious and philosophical concepts and associated with Shinto are Yamato and Wa. Toyoda became famous for its automated looms and the patented idea of Jidoka whenever a thread broke, the machine stopped. It turns out other people had already come up with that particular invention: J.
Northrop was a British inventor, who developed and built looms in New England in the late s. Northrop came up with a design that Sakichi Toyoda was able to reverse engineer and tweak. The famous Model G loom that Sakichi perfected in was an original design, but there were influences from elsewhere.
Charles Francis, the first American employee of Toyota starting in , was an expert in precision machining. During the crisis, Toyota ran out of cash and was split in two parts by the banks: the sales company on one side and the manufacturing business on the other.
They would merge again only in But while Ohno was leading the way forward in Manufacturing, Kenya Nakamura and Tatsuo Hasegawa were making similarly revolutionary inroads in Product Development.
Nakamura was as dynamic and influential a leader as Ohno was. Concurrently, Shotaro Kamiya was breaking new ground in Sales albeit based on what he had learned at GM, where he had previously worked. The production system and development system were quite home grown by Toyota and its people; in sales, Kamiya had worked previously for GM, so development of the sales process and organization drew upon his experiences positive and negative there.
These three threads are quite distinct from each other. In those years, the foundations of TPS and Toyota Product Development System were being laid with the same principles and practices being shared with suppliers.
He led the company through most of the year incubation period. Underneath, it was a copy of a Chevrolet, with reverse engineered components. Education has long been valued highly in Japan, which also contributed to the situation Toyota was able to capitalize on during the post-World War II economic miracle.
This is a spirit that Toyota embraces formally, albeit with slightly different words. Things should appear natural and simple. On his deathbed, Sakichi is said to have charged his son Kiichiro to do the same with the automobile. Dozens of his books have been translated, selling millions of copies. Japanese who study Western management begin with Drucker. This term refers to the master of a school of traditional Japanese arts, such as the tea ceremony or flower arranging, and entails recognition of the importance of doing things in a traditional, highly stylized, way.
This is the time when W. Edwards Deming and others were brought in to teach quality techniques like statistical quality control. Before Deming, another American, an MIT electrical engineer by the name of Homer Sarasohn, taught the Japanese statistical process control beginning in Shigeo Shingo was one of several key Japanese academic and practitioner leaders to import and develop IE in Japan.
Shingo taught his P-Course to thousands of front-line supervisors at Toyota and other companies. Ninomiya was a peasant who became successful by working hard. He became known to the head samurai of his community, who brought him in to try and spread his thinking.
Ninomiya was an idol of Sakichi Toyoda. It is based on the teachings of 13th-century priest Nichiren. A core belief of Nichiren Buddhism is that all people have the ability to reach enlightenment in the current lifetime. Mikawa is the old name of the region of rice fields and foothills where Toyota City now lies. Of all the warriors in Japan, the samurai from Mikawa were considered to be especially powerful adversaries: diligent, loyal, and well-organized.
In fact, it was the shogun from Mikawa Tokugawa Ieyasu who finally united all of Japan around Mikawa is a unique region, with its own distinctive accent; locals were and are often considered rednecks, and this is part of the character that fed into Toyota. It is fascinating that the two most famous individuals from the Mikawa castle town of Okazaki are the Shogun Ieyasu the most famous figure in Japanese history and Kiichiro Toyoda.
By this time, the company could tap into the great management and operating systems it had created to face this challenge. This could be considered the time and place where the TPS body of knowledge began to spread outside of Toyota in a comprehensive and methodical manner.
Maasaki Imai wrote the book Kaizen and founded the Kaizen Institute. Imai got to know Ohno and started to run seminars in and outside Japan in the late s. Suzumura and then Iwata and Nakao were the first examples of TPS guys leaving Toyota to consult outside the company Nakao and Iwata founded Shingijutsu in to operate outside Japan, whereas NPS operated inside Japan; Ohno himself orchestrated the initial territorial split.
European makers from Porsche to Mercedes to Fiat do the same. In , Toyota experienced its first financial loss in the post-war period. Born out of a series of promises that resulted from President George H.
By its 25th anniversary in , TSSC had supported over North American organizations, from tiny manufacturers to hospitals to food banks to disaster relief organizations. A number of innovations of TPS took place there Ohno found that sometimes it was easier to get people to try out his ideas outside of Toyota City.
Toyota wins the award in , following Nissan in and Denso in After the Second World War, the aerospace industry was banned in Japan and thousands of aerospace engineers suddenly became available and many moved into the automotive industry.
Tatsuo Hasegawa one of the two originators of the Toyota Product Development System , for instance, was an aerospace engineer. But, regardless of the influence of Ford on Japanese industry as a whole, the influence on Toyota was strong. Taiichi Ohno stated that he thought Henry Ford would have eventually developed many of the more advanced flow concepts and techniques that Toyota pioneered in the s. Darwin also brought a lot of influence to Japan; controversial but not in the same way he was in other countries in the West, Darwinian ideas were seen as a threat to religious ideas of creationism.
This was a non-factor in Japan, but the social implications were seen as a threat to social order. With Smiles and Ninomiya, we can easily see a theme around work ethics and being self-reliant — ideas that are still an integral part of what Toyota is today.
John Dewey and his concise, authoritative expression of the scientific method as a three-step process of learning through experiments and experience. Dewey lectured in Japan in He received a patent for a self-stopping mechanism to build in quality on automated looms in At the same time, the outside world started to learn about Toyota. In Japan, the company had become famous for its operating system in the s: during the oil crisis, when many Japanese companies lost a lot of money or went bankrupt altogether, Toyota pulled through the crisis quickly.
Academics began to pay attention. But there is more to lean thinking than just waste elimination. Around the same time, Jim Harbour was studying the cost advantage the Japanese enjoyed over the Americans and Europeans others were studying as well, including the US Department of Transportation , which contributed to the crisis in the US automotive industry and industry overall.
Some Americans responded to the success of Japanese manufacturing by advocating closing doors to Japanese imports, while others became curious to explore. Rather than returning as a team, they were scattered around GM.
In the mids, new CEO Jack Smith initiated a more concerted effort, beginning with overseas operations in Germany, Belgium and Brazil, which resulted in significant progress. The boom reached its apex in the late s, around the same time TPS was becoming famous. By , the trend of Japanese companies transplanting operations in the US was even the theme of a major Hollywood movie called Gung Ho.
These days the company is investing a lot in hydrogen-powered, hybrid and electric vehicles. This was preceded by pressure in the auto industry in the s to improve fuel economy and reduce emissions, a critical component of creating demand for smaller, more efficient vehicles in the US. Notable examples in retail include Tesco and Starbucks; the first successful application of TPS tools and techniques in healthcare occurs at Virginia Mason in Seattle. The lean healthcare movement starts: Thedacare quickly becomes another successful example, followed quickly by many more in North America.
Flinders Medical Centre in Adelaide, Australia this became an early example of lean thinking success in an academic medical center.
Other applications of lean thinking include Product and Process Development. The contrast between the thinking of lean management versus traditional thinking has been explored by many, notably Deming, of course, and Professor H.
Thomas Johnson with his series of books and essays beginning in In , art and music teachers and practitioners at the University of Cincinnati teamed up with lean construction practitioner Tom Richert to explore the relationship between lean scientific thinking and the arts. Is this diffusion, dilution… or delusion? It is comprised of four values and 12 principles that have much in common with lean thinking.
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How the Glenday Sieve applies to business processes