Effect of C. Discussion and Conclusions Platelets are blood cells that participate in the human primary hemostatic mechanism. Platelet-platelet interaction has the final purpose to produce a platelet thrombus that constitutes the primary hemostatic plug [ 24 ]. In addition, platelet adhesion and aggregation on blood vessel walls contribute to the occurrence of thrombosis and emboli formation, and have relation with other cardiovascular diseases [ 25 — 27 ]. Thus, it is important to evaluate platelet function in the thrombosis.
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Effect of C. Discussion and Conclusions Platelets are blood cells that participate in the human primary hemostatic mechanism. Platelet-platelet interaction has the final purpose to produce a platelet thrombus that constitutes the primary hemostatic plug [ 24 ].
In addition, platelet adhesion and aggregation on blood vessel walls contribute to the occurrence of thrombosis and emboli formation, and have relation with other cardiovascular diseases [ 25 — 27 ]. Thus, it is important to evaluate platelet function in the thrombosis.
Several studies have been carried out to develop antithrombotic agents with improved efficacy for preventing or treating arterial or venous thrombosis [ 28 , 29 ].
Here, we tested the effect of C. The results of the present study demonstrated that C. Furthermore, C. The interactions between platelets and various adhesive proteins, such as collagen, and soluble agonists, such as ADP, provide potential targets for developing antiplatelet agents [ 30 , 31 ].
The effect of C. This model is characterized by the massive activation of circulating platelets and the widespread formation of platelet thrombi in the microcirculation of the lungs leading to disseminated pulmonary microembolism and paralysis of the animal [ 32 ].
The oral administration of C. During thrombus formation, ADP plays a key role inducting the interaction of membrane receptor glycoprotein IIb—IIIa with fibrinogen, being the most important aggregating agent [ 26 , 33 , 34 ]. Thus, ADP was chosen as agonist to induce platelet aggregation in the study. Results showed that during platelet aggregation, the C. All results suggest that the antithrombotic activities of C. Inhibitors anticoagulants and activators procoagulant of blood coagulation may affect any of the factors.
The PT test and the aPTT test are used for distinguishing between the effects of test agents on the extrinsic and intrinsic pathways. In the clinical tests of blood coagulation, aPTT is used to evaluate the intrinsic clotting index. PT is used to evaluate the extrinsic clotting pathway. The results reported here show that while the C. This indicates that the C. At this stage, there is no indication of the presence of anticoagulants or procoagulants components in the C.
Although C. To further assess the possible effect of C. The evaluation of bleeding is a crude test of haemostasis, which is a useful tool to estimate how well platelets interact with blood vessel walls to form blood clots [ 37 ]. Here, we demonstrated that C. The transactional bleeding time in mice model is sensitive not only to platelet-active compounds, but also to drugs that are capable of influencing the fibrinolytic system [ 38 ].
Moreover, C. Our results are in accordance with a previous preliminary preclinical study that showed that C. Besides, the treatment with C. We also investigated the fibrinolytic activity of the C. To further investigate the possible mechanism of action of C. Probably, C. We suggest that the primary role of C. Activated plasmin enzymatically cleaves fibrin, which, with platelets and other hemostatic elements, underlies the pathological processes of the acute occlusive disorders [ 40 ].
Besides, when plasmin breaks down fibrin, a number of soluble parts are produced as the D-dimer, that is, a small protein fragment present in the blood after a blood clot is degraded by fibrinolysis [ 41 ].
Preliminary results of our group demonstrated that both C. These optimistic results point to the value of further studies in this field. Then with the results presented in the paper we could only assume that C. Antithrombotic agents acting in only one pathway of thrombosis formation have limited efficacy in treating arterial thrombotic diseases [ 42 ].
Hence, the C. Saponins are widely distributed in plants and have many biological activities, such as antiplatelet activity [ 14 , 15 ]. The phytochemical components responsible for C. Moreover, recent preliminary phytochemical analysis of C. Thus, we suggest that C. In conclusion, the C. The antithrombotic activity of C.
The present research showed quite optimistic results pointing to the value of further studies in this field. Conflicts of Interests The authors declared that there is no conflict of interests. References J. Gorden, Ed. View at: Google Scholar A. May, P. Seizer, and M. Davies and A. View at: Google Scholar S.
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Muda de Gabiroba - Campomanesia xanthocarpa
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Abstract Campomanesia xanthocarpa is known in Brazil as Guabiroba and is popularly used for various diseases, such as inflammatory, renal, and digestive diseases and dyslipidemia. The aim of the study was to analyze the chemical composition and investigate the effects of aqueous extract of C. The extract was evaluated for total phenolic compounds and total flavonoid content. The chemical components were determined by HPLC analyses.
Anti-inflammatory Evaluation and Toxicological Analysis of Campomanesia xanthocarpa Berg.
Gabiroba (Campomanesia xanthocarpa)