Introduction It may seem strange that permanent means of access to machinery are related to machine guarding but, in fact, they are. Means of access, as with guarding, help to control access to machine-related hazards under different circumstances — such as operation, cleaning and maintenance — and should not themselves introduce significant new risks. As with guards, when considering means of access the first approach should be to design-out the risks. For example, rather than require an access point so that lubrication points can be reached, lubrication points should be made accessible from ground level or a lubrication circuit and pump could be installed. The previous editions cease to provide a presumption of conformity to the Machinery Directive on 31 December
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Introduction It may seem strange that permanent means of access to machinery are related to machine guarding but, in fact, they are. Means of access, as with guarding, help to control access to machine-related hazards under different circumstances — such as operation, cleaning and maintenance — and should not themselves introduce significant new risks. As with guards, when considering means of access the first approach should be to design-out the risks.
For example, rather than require an access point so that lubrication points can be reached, lubrication points should be made accessible from ground level or a lubrication circuit and pump could be installed. The previous editions cease to provide a presumption of conformity to the Machinery Directive on 31 December The four parts are all B-Type standards, meaning they deal with specific aspects of machinery safety and can be applied to a wide range of categories of machinery.
Readers who are concerned about what changes might occur in relation to standards once the UK leaves the European Union can rest assured that it is unlikely that there will be any change here because BS EN ISO is equivalent to the international standard and it is all but inconceivable that the UK would cease to use this.
Remember that compliance with standards is not mandatory but is strongly recommended. For a new machine that is being CE marked to the Machinery Directive , working to the standard gives a presumption of conformity to the relevant EHSRs; without the standard, it is necessary to demonstrate that the EHSRs have been fulfilled by some other means.
A final point to note is that ISO Part 5 is in preparation, which will deal with permanent means of access on mobile machinery. What is a permanent means of access? A permanent means of access is fixed to the machine or an adjacent structure in such a way that it cannot be removed without the use of tools. As well as applying to rigidly attached means of access, the standard also applies to non-powered adjustable or movable parts such as sliding or folding ladders.
Furthermore, the standard applies to parts of the building or civil construction if the main function of these is to provide access to the machine. For the purposes of BS EN ISO , permanent means of access are working platforms, walkways, stairs, stepladders, guard rails and fixed ladders. However, the scope of the standard specifically excludes powered means of access lifts, escalators or other devices designed to move persons between levels. BS EN ISO Part 1: Choice of fixed means and general requirements of access Part 1 contains useful definitions, such as those for fixed ladder, stepladder, stair and ramp essentially the differences relate to the angle of pitch, and ladders have rungs whereas stepladders and stairs have steps.
When most people refer to stepladders they probably mean a short ladder with folding legs that enable it to be free-standing. Clause 4 of Part 1 lists the most significant hazards to consider when determining the type and location of the means of access. An additional note draws attention to other possible hazards, and the reader is also reminded of ISO relating to risk assessments.
Where there are hazards not covered by the standard, such as moving parts of machinery, extreme temperatures or hazards caused by the environment, the standard says that these should be considered and addressed by, for example, preventing unauthorised access. In other words, when designing and specifying means of access, consideration should be given to preventing unauthorised access.
One issue that is not addressed particularly well in the standard is the question of under what circumstances a permanent means of access is required, though an ISO risk assessment will help. Furthermore, three-point contact needs to be maintained except for very brief periods eg starting a screw , heavy objects should not be carried, leaning ladders should be secured and, if stepladders are used and side loads are imposed, then the stepladder should be secured.
In general, if it is anticipated that regular access will be required for machine operation, cleaning or maintenance, then a permanent means of access should be given due consideration see also Clause 5 below. Furthermore, a permanent means of access can prove to be very cost-effective compared with the cost of erecting scaffolding on multiple occasions. Clause 5 lists the general requirements for design and construction of means of access.
Note that subclause 6. References are made to other subclauses that help in determining which type of access should be selected, but the point to note is that there must be good reasons for using any means of access other than those listed higher up the hierarchy. Following on from the above, subclause 6. Annex A gives examples of changes that can be made to the machine or system to make better access possible. However, it is almost inevitable that Part 3 will also be required, because this covers the guard-rails that are usually necessary with platforms and walkways.
Subclause 4. Interestingly, a pragmatic approach is adopted, with several exceptions allowed under particular circumstances. However, great care should be taken with ribbed ramps, bearing in mind that subclause 4.
Nevertheless, it would be prudent to verify the safety requirements either by calculation or testing. Annex A relates to methods for determining slip resistance and starts by stating that no international standard currently exists.
Annex B lists the significant technical changes between ISO and the previous edition, which will be helpful to readers who have been working on the earlier edition. If guard-rails are being installed alongside platforms or walkways, Part 3 will have to be used in conjunction with Part 2 as well.
Another point to note from the definitions is that handrails must be rigid, which excludes the use of ropes, chains or cables. Clause 4 presents the General requirements for stairs, stepladders and guard-rails, including the loadings to be used in strength and deflection calculations when designing these structures.
Clause 5, Specific requirements applicable to stairs, provides further information for designing stairs. Some leeway is provided for designers, as shown by this example from subclause 5.
Clause 6, Specific requirements applicable to step ladders, provides similar details to those in Clause 5. Subclause 7. However, the same subclause states that the minimum height of the guard-rail shall be mm, so it appears that the former may be a typographical error and the height of the handrail should be greater than or equal to mm.
As well as providing requirements for guard-rails on platforms, stairs and stepladders, Clause 7 also gives details for toe plates, self-closing gates and mezzanine gates.
Clause 8, Verification of safety requirements, gives a choice of testing or calculation. The clause goes on to provide details of how to test guard-rails and the steps of a stair. For testing stepladders, the reader is referred to EN , Ladders. Requirements, testing, marking. If the designer chooses to verify the safety requirements by calculation, the information relating to the test methods must be taken into account so that the two verification methods are comparable.
According to Annex A, which lists the significant technical changes between ISO and the previous edition, Clause 8 has been completely modified. Clause 4, Selection and design of ladder systems, provides some of the information required by the designer, but more is contained in Clause 5. However, subclause 4. Clause 5, Specific requirements of ladder systems, provides extensive information relating to ladder design, including the profiles and dimensions of rungs round rungs are not permitted.
Subclause 5. Earlier this White Paper mentioned the need to prevent unauthorised access. If an anti-climb device is fitted to a ladder, a written warning or audible signal is not adequate for access control. However, see Clause 6 below. Clause 6, Verification of safety requirements, appears to contradict subclause 5. Annex A, Requirements for the design of anti-climb devices, is normative and should, therefore, be complied with often an Annex to a standard is informative only.
Under A. General requirements for the design and construction of fixed and movable guards. Subclause A. There is no option in the Annex for verifying the safety requirements by calculation. Annex B informative illustrates the main dimensions of a fixed ladder equipped with a safety cage. Annex C lists the significant technical changes between ISO and the previous edition, which will be helpful to readers who have been working on the earlier edition.
Compliance surveys Procter Machine Guarding offers free Machine Guarding Compliance Surveys of standalone machinery and assemblies of machines, old or new, and can also assess permanent means of access. As part of the free survey, the safety engineers provide a short written report that identifies areas of non-compliance and actions that can be taken to reduce risk, improve safety and comply with PUWER.
BS EN ISO 14122-3:2001+A1:2010
Zulkikree Updated standard requirements The system should incorporate a knee eh that is mm from the top rail, and a lower bottom rail that is no more than mm from the floor level. Annex B lists the significant technical changes between ISO Clause 7Specific requirements applicable to guard-railsstates that guard-rails shall be installed when the height of the possible fall exceeds mm, if the gap between the platform and machine structure exceeds mm or if the protection provided by the structure is not equivalent to a guard-rail. The four em are, in full:. The standard also states that the gate should not be locked, but held in closed position, and should be designed to open easily and closed with a firm stop, preventing users pushing against the gate and potentially falling through the opening.
EN 14122-3 PDF
BS EN ISO 14122-3:2016